The region of the world called the “holy land” is also known as “the Levant” by scholars.

Because it connects three vast continents, it became multi-cultural due to the trade routes.

Inns and vacation spots would have been commonplace, as well as commerce of every kind.

The road passing outside Yerushalayim would have had people of the three main language groups (Hebrew, Greek, and Latin) continually walking on it.

One of the features along this road was widely-known by people far and wide: GOLGOTHA, the place of the skull.

Gulgoltha was its Hebrew name, but the Latin word was Calvariae Locus (place of the skull). The Greek is kraniou topos.

Being the Creator incarnate, Yahusha spoke all the languages placed on the document Pilate ordered to be placed on His stake.


Most of His talmidim were far more limited in their ability to speak foreign tongues, and being observant Hebrews they studied Torah in Hebrew.

Some of them may have been unable to read and write. This meant they were possibly “illiterate”, unskilled with “letters”.

Acts 4:13 is a record indicating Peter and Yahukanon were “unschooled” men and possibly unable to read and write.

Peter used a scribe, dictating his letter to Sila:

1Pe 5:12  “Through Sila the trustworthy brother, as I reckon, I have written to you briefly, encouraging and witnessing that this is the true favor of Alahim.

In this stand fast.”


The Sanhedrin would have conducted their affairs in Hebrew, certainly not Greek or Latin.

Pilate may have known a little Hebrew as well, being sent to an area speaking that tongue, and being an educated man probably also knew Greek.

One of the soldiers escorting Paul was shocked when he heard Paul ask him a question in Greek:


Act 21:37:  “And as Paul was about to be led into the barracks, he said to the commander, ‘Am I allowed to say something to you?’ And he said, ‘Do you know Greek?’”


The primary language of Yerushalayim, and to the north Shomeron (Samaria), would have been Hebrew.

We can’t say for certain whether Pilate addressed Yahusha or the throng in Hebrew, but since they were all speaking back and forth, it is more likely to have been Hebrew, since a ruler yelling out Latin words to a throng that mainly spoke Hebrew would seem a little odd.


Paul taught both Yahudim and Greeks, and most likely used the accurate Hebrew words for names and places. He would have generally used Greek to those who understood only Greek, but he had no reason to hide the true Name of the One who knocked Him down on the way to Damascus.

He would have told the Greeks the Name was Yahusha, the only name given among men by which we must be delivered (Acts 4:12).


Act 26:14:  “And when we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me, and saying in the Hebrew language, ‘Shaul, Shaul, why do you persecute Me?  It is hard for you to kick against the goads.’”

The commercial sector of the population tended to be more multicultural, and the more educated individuals would be capable of conversing and writing in Hebrew, Greek, as well as Latin. The Samaritans spoke Hebrew primarily, but inn keepers and other business folk would have encountered a few words and phrases of Greek and Latin enough to understand them.


Lew White
Torah Institute



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